ReViewing Chess: French, Winawer, Other White 4th Moves, Vol. 70.1 (ReViewing Chess: Openings)

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Read more Read less. Openings Due to its large file size, this book may take longer to download. Kindle Cloud Reader Read instantly in your browser. Product details File Size: Raphael; 1st edition October 24, Publication Date: October 24, Sold by: Related Video Shorts 0 Upload your video. Customer reviews There are no customer reviews yet. Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities ID and other developmental disabilities DD has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life.

The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…. Epilepsy and Intellectual Disability: Although epilepsy is particularly common among people with intellectual disability ID it remains unclear whether it is associated with an increased likelihood of co-morbid psychopathology. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in an adolescent with epilepsy and mild intellectual disability. Intellectual disability is a comorbid condition in epilepsy.

People with epilepsy and intellectual disability are at high risk of developing behavioral problems. Among the many contributors to behavioral problems in people with epilepsy and intellectual disability are those of traumatic experiences. Management challenges in children with both epilepsy and intellectual disability. People who have both epilepsy and intellectual disability have significant problems requiring skilled health care management. Clinical nurse specialists have the unique opportunity to work with these people and their families to help them develop self-management and family management skills.

In this article, we describe some factors associated with intellectual disability and epilepsy. In addition, we address the management challenges associated with this dual diagnoses in 3 areas: Finally, we suggest ways that clinical nurse specialists can foster development of management skills. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of epilepsy in children with intellectual disability. An additional goal was to determine if there were statistical differences in the occurrence of epilepsy related to the sex, level and etiology of intellectual disability of children.

The sample consisted of children with intellectual…. As such, behavioral problems can be seen as a reflection of these traumatic experiences. Among established trauma therapies, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing EMDR is an emerging treatment that is effective in adults and also seems to be effective in children. The aim was to assess whether clinical trauma status significantly diminished to nonclinical status posttreatment.

Results showed a significant decrease in trauma symptoms toward nonclinical status from pretreatment to posttreatment. EMDR consequences for epilepsy and intellectual disability are discussed. Caring for a family member with intellectual disability and epilepsy: To examine the caregiving impact of those who support a family member with intellectual disability and epilepsy. An online, qualitative international survey was conducted via the auspices of the International Bureau of Epilepsy with various stakeholders who support individuals who have intellectual disability and epilepsy.

Four main domains, which were comprised of ten themes, were derived from the qualitative data using Braun and Clarke's qualitative framework. These domains comprised 1 practical concerns, 2 disrupted family dynamics, 3 emotional burden and 4 positive experiences. In combination these themes illustrate the pervasive impact on family life for those supporting an individual with complex needs. Financial concerns, coordination and responsibility of care, diverted attention from other family members and social isolation all contributed a significant burden of care for family members.

Positive aspects were, however, also cited including the closeness of the family unit and a fostering of altruistic behavior. The study provides an insight into an under-researched area. The burden of caring for a family member across the lifespan has a largely negative and pervasive impact. Targeted service provision could contribute to an amelioration of the challenges faced by these families. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Associations and Service Implications. There are limited studies on the prevalence of epilepsy and co-morbid conditions in older adults with an ID.

To begin to address this prevalence of epilepsy was estimated for participants in the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Associations with demographic variables and co morbid health conditions were…. A systematic review of neuropsychiatric comorbidities in patients with both epilepsy and intellectual disability.

Epilepsy is a neurological condition that is particularly common in people with intellectual disability ID. The care for people with both epilepsy and ID is often complicated by the presence of neuropsychiatric disorders, defined as psychiatric symptoms, psychiatric disorders, and behavioral. De novo mutations of KIAA in females cause intellectual disability and intractable epilepsy. Background Mutations in the KIAA gene have been reported in male patients with X-linked intellectual disability, and related female carriers were unaffected. Here, we report 14 female patients who carry a heterozygous de novo KIAA mutation and share a phenotype characterised by intellectual disability and epilepsy.

X-inactivation and expression studies were performed when possible. Results All mutations were predicted to result in a frameshift or premature stop. Thirteen patients had mild to severe intellectual disability. This female phenotype partially overlaps with the reported male phenotype which consists of more severe intellectual disability, microcephaly, growth retardation, facial dysmorphisms and, less frequently, epilepsy. One female patient showed completely skewed X-inactivation, complete absence of RNA expression in blood and a phenotype similar to male patients. In the six other tested patients, X-inactivation was random, confirmed by a non-significant twofold to threefold decrease of RNA expression in blood, consistent with the expected mosaicism between cells expressing mutant or normal KIAA alleles.

Conclusions Heterozygous loss of KIAA expression is a cause of intellectual disability in females. Compared with its hemizygous male counterpart, the heterozygous female disease has less severe intellectual disability, but is more often associated with a severe and intractable myoclonic epilepsy. Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures. The seizures happen when clusters Epilepsy has many possible causes, including illness, brain injury, Novel SACS mutations associated with intellectual disability, epilepsy and widespread supratentorial abnormalities.

We describe eight subjects from two consanguineous families segregating with autosomal recessive childhood onset spastic ataxia, peripheral neuropathy and intellectual disability. The degree of intellectual disability varied from mild to severe and all four affected individuals in one family developed aggressive behavior and epilepsy. Using exome sequencing, we identified two novel truncating mutations c. MRI revealed typical cerebellar and pontine changes associated with ARSACS as well as multiple supratentorial changes in both families as likely contributing factors to the cognitive symptoms.

Intellectual disability and behavioral abnormalities have been reported in some cases of ARSACS but are not a part of the characteristic triad of symptoms that includes cerebellar ataxia, spasticity and peripheral neuropathy. Our combined findings bring further knowledge to the phenotypic spectrum, neurodegenerative changes and genetic variability associated with the SACS gene of clinical and diagnostic importance.

Published by Elsevier B. To evaluate the clinical associations of adult-onset photosensitivity, we studied the clinical and EEG data of patients who were referred due to a possible first seizure and who had a photoparoxysmal response on their EEG. Patients with clinical evidence of photosensitivity before the age of 20 were excluded. Of a total of 30 patients, four had acute symptomatic seizures, two had vasovagal syncope, and 24 were diagnosed with epilepsy.

Nine of the 24 patients had idiopathic genetic generalized epilepsies and predominantly generalized photoparoxysmal response, but also rare photically-induced seizures, while 15 had exclusively, or almost exclusively, reflex photically-induced occipital seizures with frequent secondary generalization and posterior photoparoxysmal response. Other important differences included a significantly older age at seizure onset and paucity of spontaneous interictal epileptic discharges in patients with photically-induced occipital seizures; only a quarter of these had occasional occipital spikes, in contrast to the idiopathic genetic generalized epilepsy patients with typically generalized epileptic discharges.

On the other hand, both groups shared a positive family history of epilepsy , common seizure threshold modulators such as tiredness and sleep deprivation , normal neurological examination and MRI, a generally benign course, and good response to valproic acid. Identification of idiopathic photosensitive occipital epilepsy fills a diagnostic gap in adult first-seizure epileptology and is clinically important because of its good response to antiepileptic drug treatment and fair prognosis.

Mutations in the KIAA gene have been reported in male patients with X-linked intellectual disability, and related female carriers were unaffected. All mutations were predicted to result in a frameshift or premature stop. Heterozygous loss of KIAA expression is a cause of intellectual disability in females. For permission to use where not already granted under a licence please go to http: Epilepsy affects around 33, people in Denmark.

The classification of the epilepsies is currently under revision and the clinical course of the disease depends on the underlying aetiology. More than two thirds of patients with epilepsy can obtain complete seizure control. The remainders, counting around Lacosamide in the treatment of patients with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities: A long-term study of patients. This study aimed to analyze the retention rate of lacosamide LCM in patients with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities IDs , to identify factors influencing retention rate, and to investigate the LCM retention rate with and without concomitant sodium channel blocker SCB.

Using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, we conducted a monocentric, retrospective, observational, open-label study to evaluate LCM retention rates in patients with IDs and drug-resistant epilepsy. In addition, the impact of therapy-related variables on the long-term retention of LCM was evaluated. One hundred thirty-six subjects with IDs and drug-resistant epilepsy were included age years ; most patients had focal epilepsy. Long-term retention rates were An additional and independent influence of concomitant therapy with SCB on retention rate could not be confirmed. One of the major challenges in medically caring for patients with epilepsy and IDs is the high rate of drug resistance.

However, there is a lack of evidence-based information about the efficacy and tolerability of AEDs in this population. It has been shown that concomitant SCB use is a key factor in increasing the risk of LCM failure in children with epilepsy. This finding has not been replicated in our predominantly adult sample of patients with IDs. The health-related quality of life of children with refractory epilepsy: Children had the presence or absence of ID determined by formal neuropsychological or educational assessment. The relative effect of epilepsy on the two intellectual ability groups was determined using relevant clinical variables.

Both intellectually normal children with epilepsy and children with epilepsy and ID were more likely to have psychosocial problems compared with their respective intellectual ability reference populations. The results also revealed that children with ID had reduced HRQOL compared with intellectually normal children; a result independent of epilepsy. Analysis of the relationship between epilepsy variables and HRQOL revealed that the QOLCE was the most sensitive in detecting variation in age at onset, seizure frequency, and medications taken.

The HRQOL of children with refractory epilepsy is greatly affected, regardless of intellectual ability level. Training nurses in a competency framework to support adults with epilepsy and intellectual disability: People with an intellectual learning disability ID and epilepsy have an increased seizure frequency, higher frequencies of multiple antiepileptic drug AED use and side effects, higher treatment costs, higher mortality rates and more behavioural problems than the rest of the population with epilepsy.

The introduction of nurse-led care may lead to improvements in outcome for those with an ID and epilepsy ; however, this has not been tested in a definitive clinical trial.

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Browse the world's largest eBookstore and start reading today on the web, tablet, phone, or ereader. The dynamic nature of the interictal hypometabolism observed with 18[F]FDG in some patients suggests that excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitters and their receptors may be involved. General physicians play an important role in managing the issues of people with epilepsy. Deaths in selected cohorts, such as sudden unexpected death in epilepsy SUDEP , status epilepticus SE , suicides, and accidents are more frequently epilepsy -related. A Professional Guide to Pizza Making: We aimed to compare long-term social outcomes in young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy cases with neurologically normal sibling controls. Mutations or structural genomic alterations of the X-chromosomal gene ARHGEF9 have been described in male and female patients with intellectual disability.

To determine whether or not ID nurses, using a competency framework developed to optimise nurse management of epilepsy in people with an ID, can cost-effectively improve clinical and quality-of-life outcomes in the management of epilepsy compared with treatment as usual. Community-based secondary care delivered by members of community ID teams. Participants were adults aged years with an ID and epilepsy under the care of a community ID team and had had at least one seizure in the 6 months before the trial. This provides guidelines describing a structure and goals to support the delivery of epilepsy care and management by ID-trained nurses.

The primary outcome was the seizure severity scale from the Epilepsy and Learning Disabilities Quality of Life questionnaire. Measures of mood, behaviour, AED side effects and carer strain were also collected. A cost-utility analysis was undertaken along with a qualitative examination of carers' views of participants' epilepsy management. In total, individuals were recruited into the study from 17 research clusters. Using an intention-to-treat analysis controlling for baseline individual-level and cluster-level variables there was no significant difference in seizure severity score between the two arms.

Altogether, complete cases were included in the non-imputed primary analysis. Analyses of the secondary. Copy number variation CNV is an important cause of neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about the role of CNV in adults with epilepsy and intellectual disability. To evaluate the prevalence of pathogenic CNVs and identify possible candidate CNVs and genes in patients with epilepsy and intellectual disability.

In this cross-sectional study, genome-wide microarray was used to evaluate a cohort of adults with unexplained childhood-onset epilepsy and intellectual disability who were recruited from the Toronto Western Hospital epilepsy outpatient clinic from January 1, , through December 31, The inclusion criteria were 1 pediatric seizure onset with ongoing seizure activity in adulthood, 2 intellectual disability of any degree, and 3 no structural brain abnormalities or metabolic conditions that could explain the seizures.

DNA screening was performed using genome-wide microarray platforms. The Residual Variation Intolerance Score was used to evaluate genes within the identified CNVs that could play a role in each patient's phenotype. Of the patients, probands were investigated mean [SD] age, Five of the 23 probands with positive results Parental testing revealed de novo CNVs in 11 Sixteen of 23 probands Copy number variations in Saudi family with intellectual disability and epilepsy. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Abstract Background Epilepsy is genetically complex but common brain disorder of the world affecting millions of people with almost of all age groups.

Novel Copy number variations CNVs are considered as important reason for the numerous neurodevelopmental disorders along with intellectual disability and epilepsy. DNA array based studies contribute to explain a more severe clinical presentation of the disease but interoperation of many detected CNVs are still challenging. Our results showed de novo deletions, duplications and deletion plus duplication on differential chromosomal regions in the affected individuals that were not shown in the normal fathe and normal kids by using Agilent CytoGenomics 3.

Conclusions We found some of the de novo deletions and duplication in our study in Saudi family with intellectual disability and epilepsy. Our results suggest that array-CGH should be used as a first line of genetic test for epilepsy except there is a strong indication for a monogenic syndrome. The advanced high through put array-CGH technique used in this study aim to collect the data base and to identify new mechanisms describing.

Epilepsy is genetically complex but common brain disorder of the world affecting millions of people with almost of all age groups. We found some of the de novo deletions and duplication in our study in Saudi family with intellectual disability and epilepsy. The advanced high through put array-CGH technique used in this study aim to collect the data base and to identify new mechanisms describing epileptic disorder, may help to improve the clinical. Assessing social skills is one of the most complex and challenging areas to study because behavioral repertoires vary depending on an individual's culture and context.

However, researchers have conclusively demonstrated that individuals with intellectual disabilities ID have impaired social skills as well as those with co-morbid autism spectrum disorders ASD and epilepsy. However, it is unknown how these groups differ. One hundred participants with ID were matched and compared across four equal groups comprising 25 participants with ID, 25 participants with epilepsy , 25 participants with ASD, and 25 participants with combined ASD and epilepsy. Implications of these findings are discussed. Mutations in the TBC1D24 gene were first reported in an Italian family with a unique epileptic phenotype consisting of drug-responsive, early-onset idiopathic myoclonic seizures.

Patients presented with isolated bilateral or focal myoclonia, which could evolve to long-lasting attacks without loss of consciousness, with a peculiar reflex component, and were associated with generalized tonic-clonic seizures. This entity was named "familial infantile myoclonic epilepsy " FIME.

French, Winawer variation Middlegame - GM Varuzhan Akobian

More recently, TBC1D24 mutations have been shown to cause a variable range of disorders, including epilepsy of various seizure types and severity, non-syndromic deafness, and DOORS syndrome. We report on the electro-clinical features of two brothers, born to first-cousin parents, affected with infantile-onset myoclonic epilepsy.

The peculiar epileptic presentation prompted us to perform direct sequencing of the TBC1D24 gene. The patients had very early onset of focal myoclonic fits with variable topography, lasting a few minutes to several hours, without loss of consciousness, which frequently evolved to generalized myoclonus or myoclonic status. Reflex myoclonia were noticed in one patient. Neurological outcome was marked by moderate intellectual disability.

Despite the high frequency of seizures, repeated EEG recordings showed normal background rhythm and rare interictal spikes and waves. We found a homozygous missense mutation, c. GluLys, in the two affected brothers. This observation combined with recent data from the literature, suggest that mutations in TBCD24 cause a pathological continuum, with FIME at the "benign" end and severe drug-refractory epileptic encephalopathy on the severe end.

Early-onset myoclonic epilepsy with focal and generalized myoclonic seizures is a common characteristic of this continuum. Impact of resective epilepsy surgery on health-related quality of life in children with and without low intellectual ability. The current study examined pre- and postoperative health-related quality of life HRQL across children with and without low intellectual ability.

We also aimed to clarify the literature on postsurgical change by assessing domain-specific HRQL pre- and postoperatively in children with drug-resistant epilepsy. At the group-level, postsurgical change in HRQL was examined through linear mixed-effects modeling. Clinically important change in HRQL at the individual level was quantified using a standard error of measurement SEM -based criterion, and estimates were stratified by intellectual ability. No differences in change in HRQL related to intellectual level were found. Further, while overall HRQL is shown to improve in children following epilepsy surgery, domain-specific change is nuanced and has important implications for health practitioners aiming to monitor treatment progress of patients.

Two-thirds of the patients described so far also have generalized epilepsy. Periictal and interictal headache including migraine in Dutch patients with epilepsy: As early as in , it was noted that there was a need to find "a plausible explanation of the long recognized affinities of migraine and epilepsy ". However, results of recent studies are clearly conflicting on this matter. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to define the prevalence and characteristics of both seizure-related and interictal headaches in patients with epilepsy years seeking help in the tertiary epilepsy clinic SEIN in Zwolle.

Using a questionnaire, subjects were surveyed on the existence of headaches including characteristics, duration, severity, and accompanying symptoms. Furthermore, details on epilepsy were retrieved from medical records e. Diagnoses of migraine, tension-type headache, or unclassifiable headache were made based on criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Migraine occurs significantly more often in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population pheadaches conforms to results in the general population.

These results show that current headaches are a significantly more frequent problem amongst people with epilepsy than in people without epilepsy. When comparing migraine prevalence, this is significantly higher in the population of patients with epilepsy. The voice of people with intellectual disabilities ID is needed in the literature to best understand their unique experiences and perspectives. Researchers face challenges in conducting interviews with people with ID who are limited in conceptual and verbal language skills.

It can also be difficult to obtain participants with ID because of…. Epilepsia What Is Epilepsy? Epilepsy comes from a Greek word meaning "to hold or seize," and people How Can Doctors Help? As surgical treatments for adult and pediatric forms of epilepsy have become more refined, methods for noninvasive localization of epileptogenic foci have become increasingly important.

Detection of focal brain metabolic or flow abnormalities is now well recognized as an essential step in the presurgical evaluation of many patients with epilepsy. Positron emission tomography PET scanning is most beneficial when used in the context of the total clinical evaluation of patients, including scalp EEG, invasive EEG, neuropsychologic testing, etc. Metabolic PET studies also give insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms of epilepsy. The dynamic nature of the interictal hypometabolism observed with 18 F FDG in some patients suggests that excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitters and their receptors may be involved.

An exciting current application of PET scanning is the use of tracers for neurotransmitter receptors in the study of epilepsy patients. Mu and non-mu opiate receptors have been extensively studied and are beginning to give new insights into this disorder. Increased labeling of mu receptors in temporal neocortex using 11C-carfentanil has been demonstrated and, in some patients, supplements the clinical localization information from 18 F FDG studies.

Increased mu opiate receptor number or affinity is thought to play a role in anticonvulsant mechanisms. Specificity of increased mu receptors is supported by the absence of significant changes in non-mu opiate receptors. Other brain receptors are also of interest for future studies, particularly those for excitatory neurotransmitters. Combined studies of flow, metabolism, and neuroreceptors may elucidate the factors responsible for initiation and termination of seizures, thus improving patient treatment.

The dynamic nature of the interictal hypometabolism observed with 18[F]FDG in some patients suggests that excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitters and their receptors may be involved. Increased labeling of mu receptors in temporal neocortex using 11C-carfentanil has been demonstrated and, in some patients, supplements the clinical localization information from 18[F]FDG studies. What are symptoms other than seizures?

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This's no clear-cut answer to why people Often doctors can't pinpoint the exact cause of a person's epilepsy. But scientists do know that some things can Incorrect dosage of IQSEC2, a known intellectual disability and epilepsy gene, disrupts dendritic spine morphogenesis. There is considerable genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity associated with intellectual disability ID , specific learning disabilities, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and epilepsy.

The intelligence quotient IQ motif and SEC7 domain containing protein 2 gene IQSEC2 is located on the X-chromosome and harbors mutations that contribute to non-syndromic ID with and without early-onset seizure phenotypes in both sexes. Although IQ and Sec7 domain mutations lead to partial loss of IQSEC2 enzymatic activity, the in vivo pathogenesis resulting from these mutations is not known. Although the number of dendritic spines had normalized by 21DIV, a reduction was noted in the number of immature spines.

In contrast, when modeling increased dosage, overexpression of wild-type IQSEC2 led to neurons with shorter axons that were more compact and displayed simpler dendritic branching. These observations provide evidence of dosage sensitivity for IQSEC2, which normally escapes X-inactivation in females, and links these disturbances in expression to alterations in.

All of these mutations occurred de novo, except c. Refinement of the deletion in 8q We report on a new patient with the smallest overlapping de novo deletion in 8q The proposita was an 8-year-old girl, who developed seizures at 10 months, and her epileptic seizure became severe and difficult to control with antiepileptic drugs. She also exhibited developmental delay and walked alone at 24 months. She was referred to us for evaluation for developmental delay and epilepsy at the age of 8 years.

She had intellectual disability IQ 37 at 7 years and autistic behavior, and spoke two word sentences at 8 years. She had mild dysmorphic features, including telecanthus and thick vermilion of the lips. Array comparative genomic hybridization detected a 1. The minimum overlapping region between the present and previously reported patients is considered to be a critical region for the phenotype of the deletion in 8q We suggest that the deletion in 8q In epilepsy , the normal pattern of neuronal activity becomes disturbed, causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior or sometimes convulsions, muscle Providing important clues regarding parental relatedness consanguinity , uniparental disomy, chromosomal recombination or rearrangements, LCSH are rarely considered as a possible epigenetic cause of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Additionally, despite being relevant to imprinting, LCSH at imprinted loci have not been truly addressed in terms of pathogenicity. Out of cases, 14 5. There were 5 cases of LCSH at 15p Apart from a case of LCSH at 7q Clinically, these cases were characterized by a weak resemblance to corresponding imprinting diseases i.

This study demonstrates that shorter LCSH at chromosomes 7q Consequently, this type of epigenetic mutations appears to be the most common one among children with neurodevelopmental diseases. Finally, since LCSH less than 2.

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Pragmatic Communication Deficits in Children with Epilepsy. Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are related to general intellectual functioning. Including young people with intellectual disability in a university environment.

We investigated a continuing education course in creative music making, initiated to promote the inclusion of young people with intellectual disability in a university setting. Despite organizers' attempts to foster diversity within the student cohort, enrolments were almost exclusively from students who had intellectual disability. Being in the university environment, and in a place of higher learning, seemed to be valued by some.

However, students' main focus was on group musicking in a dedicated music room rather than interacting with the wider university community. Those who did not identify as disabled believed it was important to continue to address the barriers to wider inclusion. While acknowledging the risks around mediating the social interactions of young people with intellectual disability, we argue that future courses should include activities specifically designed to bring them to classes with typical students and to the wider activities of the university.

Absence epilepsy and the CHD2 gene: Deletions of the 15q26 region encompassing the chromodomain helicase DNA binding domain 2 CHD2 gene have been associated with intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and several types of epilepsy. Including the cases mentioned in ECARUCA European cytogeneticists association register of unbalanced chromosome aberrations and DECIPHER database of genomic variation and phenotype in humans using ensembl resources, so far, a total of 13 intellectually disabled patients with a genetically proven deletion of the CHD2 gene are described, of whom eleven had a history of severe forms of epilepsy starting from a young age.

In this article, a moderately intellectually disabled year-old male with a 15q Careful interdisciplinary assessment revealed that the psychotic phenomena originated from a previously unrecognized absence epilepsy. Treatment with valproic acid was started which resulted in full remission of psychotic symptoms, and consequently, substantial improvement of behavior. It was concluded that in case of rare developmental disorders with genetically proven etiology, a detailed inventory of. Noninvasive brain stimulation, particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS and transcranial direct current stimulation tDCS , are emerging as realistic tools for seizure control.

Numerous open-label trials and a few recent randomized controlled trials suggest the capacity of both techniques to suppress seizures. Additionally, specialized TMS protocols aimed to map cortical function and to measure cortical excitability may have realistic roles as diagnostic tools in epilepsy. As the prevalence of drug-resistant epilepsy has not changed in recent years, TMS and tDCS offer noninvasive and nonpharmacological options to improve control of intractable seizures. Here, we report 14 female patients who carry a heterozygous de novo KIAA mutation and share a phenotype characterised by intellectual.

Evaluated emotional and intellectual correlates of unsuccessful suicide attempts in persons with seizure disorders. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Scores demonstrated increased anxiety and decreased ego strength among those with histories of suicide attempts, while intellectual abilities as evaluated by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence…. The severity of the epilepsy did not correlate with the presence of autistic features or with the severity of cognitive impairment.

Mutations were distributed throughout the gene, but spared spliced 3' and 5' exons. Seizures in patients with mutations in exons were SYNGAP1 encephalopathy is characterised by early neurodevelopmental delay typically preceding the onset of a relatively recognisable epilepsy comprising generalised seizures absences, myoclonic jerks and frequent Lipid binding defects and perturbed synaptogenic activity of a Collybistin RH mutant that causes epilepsy and intellectual disability. Signaling at nerve cell synapses is a key determinant of proper brain function, and synaptic defects--or synaptopathies--are at the basis of many neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Accordingly, it was discovered recently that an RH missense mutation in the diffuse B-cell lymphoma homology domain of Cb, which carries the guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity, leads to epilepsy and intellectual disability in human patients. In the present study, we determined the mechanism by which the Cb RH mutation perturbs inhibitory synapse formation and causes brain dysfunction. Based on a combination of biochemical, cell biological, and molecular dynamics simulation approaches, we demonstrate that the RH mutation alters the strength of intramolecular interactions between the diffuse B-cell lymphoma homology domain and the pleckstrin homology domain of Cb.

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