https://gorropearmage.ml/the-dead-man-vol-1.php His energy, efficiency, professionalism and skillful leadership amidst the often-confused rush to build modern warships did not go unnoticed. Yet, Dewey felt some degree of despair when he reached the permanent rank of commodore in , only four years from forced retirement. No war seemed in the offing, and should war break out, he knew that other deserving officers waited for fleet and squadron commands.
Roosevelt expected war with Spain and felt that the Asiatic Squadron, operating some 7, miles from homeports, needed a strong, aggressive hand at the helm. Fate waited to present Commodore Dewey with his chance for greatness.
Dewey did not wait on fate. Gathering every available scrap of information on the Philippines to supplement a file provided by the Navy, he ordered ammunition rushed to his squadron in Yokohama, Japan. Dewey arrived in Yokohama in late , and his men loved him from the beginning. Extremely fit, handsome, and always neatly dressed, their commodore seemed as comfortable with the common Jack as with his officers. His white walrus mustache and piercing blue eyes seemed to dominate the decks of his flagship. Within days of his arrival at Yokohama, this outstanding leader had gained the full support of his gathering squadron—and well that he did, for much hard work remained to ready his people and ships for war.
As soon as sufficient ammunition arrived in Yokohama, Dewey ordered his squadron to make for Hong Kong.
An alert from Roosevelt followed news of the sinking of Maine in February. As Dewey waited for his remaining ships to concentrate in Hong Kong, he plumbed the American consul in Manila for information.
He left no stone unturned, even dressing an aide as a civilian to wander the docks and solicit information from incoming vessels. As his warships arrived, Dewey purchased the freighter Zafiro and the collier Nanshan from British sources and registered them as American merchant vessels, so they could enter neutral ports should war be declared. The closest American base lay 7, miles away.
He then dry-docked each of his ships for last-minute scraping, repair and a coat of dark gray paint. Finally, on April 25, Dewey received a telegram confirming the declaration of war. Within hours the British invited his squadron to leave neutral Hong Kong. As the Asiatic Squadron steamed from port, its officers and men understood the sortie would end in absolute victory or utter defeat. They threw themselves into battle preparations, stripping flammable material from the ships, dry firing guns, studying signals and planning for damage control.
Off the Philippines on April 30, Dewey dispatched two ships to search Subic Bay, but the Spanish fleet had abandoned it, as it lacked supporting land batteries. The commodore called together his captains before sailing on to Manila. He knew the islands guarding Boca Grande held at least six guns that outranged his own. He also knew the Spanish expected his fleet and had possibly mined the channel.
Given the circumstances, Dewey felt only an audacious night passage could succeed—and he planned to lead the column in Olympia. Like his hero Farragut, Dewey brooked no argument from his gathered captains. As midnight approached, Olympia led the protected cruisers Baltimore and Raleigh , gunboats Petrel and Concord , protected cruiser Boston and revenue cutter Hugh McCulloch into the passage, followed closely by Zafiro and Nanshan.
Following the burst of inaccurate fire from the quickly silenced battery on El Fraile, the column broke into Manila Bay. Commanding from aboard the unarmored cruiser Reina Christina , Montojo knew that his seven old vessels did not rate half the displacement of the modern American ships and that his largest 6.
In an effort to offset American firepower, the admiral anchored lighters alongside his larger vessels to absorb enemy fire. Gun emplacements at Sangley Point supported the west flank of the squadron. Four additional gunboats, stripped of weapons to fortify the harbor, hid in the shallow waters behind Cavite. Warned by telegraph at of the American approach, Montojo had few illusions about the coming battle, but he sent his sailors to their guns to fight with honor in defense of Spain. Sending his collier and freighter clear under the escort of Hugh McCulloch , Dewey first cruised the Manila waterfront in search of the Spanish squadron.
At batteries near Manila opened on the Americans; Boston and Concord answered their inaccurate fire.
Shortly afterward, Olympia observed explosions near Cavite, some two miles away. Dewey assumed panic on the part of the Spanish, but Montojo had ordered a minefield detonated to provide maneuver room for his flagship. At both ship and shore batteries at Cavite opened on the Americans. Dewey, with no rounds to spare, held his fire and maintained a converging course for the next 25 minutes. Its 5-inchers and the smaller rapid-fire guns of the starboard battery quickly added their din and smoke to the combat, a scene repeated as each American vessel spotted the enemy.
Two Spanish torpedo boats raced toward the squadron—one was sunk by American fire, while the other, wreathed in flames, beached itself. Don Juan de Austria also attempted to close on the American fleet before concentrated fire saw it off. Then Montojo ordered Reina Christina into the harbor in a valiant attempt to ram Olympia.
Heavy shells slammed into it, and the Spanish flagship limped back to its anchorage. As firing ceased, it became obvious he had severely punished the Spanish squadron, leaving some vessels in flames and others listing or settled in the shallow harbor. As the Americans paused to enjoy a belated breakfast, he surveyed the wreckage of his squadron. Don Antonio de Ulloa had settled in the harbor, its captain and half its crew dead or wounded.
Old Castilla , beaten to pieces and afire, sank at anchor. There are three basic themes to manifest destiny:. Historian Frederick Merk says this concept was born out of "a sense of mission to redeem the Old World by high example Historians have emphasized that "manifest destiny" was a contested concept— pre-civil war Democrats endorsed the idea but many prominent Americans such as Abraham Lincoln , Ulysses S. Grant , and most Whigs rejected it. Historian Daniel Walker Howe writes, "American imperialism did not represent an American consensus; it provoked bitter dissent within the national polity Whigs saw America's moral mission as one of democratic example rather than one of conquest.
Newspaper editor John O'Sullivan is generally credited with coining the term manifest destiny in to describe the essence of this mindset, which was a rhetorical tone;  however, the unsigned editorial titled "Annexation" in which it first appeared was arguably written by journalist and annexation advocate Jane Cazneau. But manifest destiny always limped along because of its internal limitations and the issue of slavery, says Merk.
It never became a national priority. By , former U. President John Quincy Adams , originally a major supporter of the concept underlying manifest destiny, had changed his mind and repudiated expansionism because it meant the expansion of slavery in Texas. From the outset Manifest Destiny—vast in program, in its sense of continentalism —was slight in support. It lacked national, sectional, or party following commensurate with its magnitude. The reason was it did not reflect the national spirit. The thesis that it embodied nationalism, found in much historical writing, is backed by little real supporting evidence.
There was never a set of principles defining manifest destiny, therefore it was always a general idea rather than a specific policy made with a motto. Ill-defined but keenly felt, manifest destiny was an expression of conviction in the morality and value of expansionism that complemented other popular ideas of the era, including American exceptionalism and Romantic nationalism.
Andrew Jackson , who spoke of "extending the area of freedom", typified the conflation of America's potential greatness, the nation's budding sense of Romantic self-identity, and its expansion. Yet Jackson would not be the only president to elaborate on the principles underlying manifest destiny. Owing in part to the lack of a definitive narrative outlining its rationale, proponents offered divergent or seemingly conflicting viewpoints. While many writers focused primarily upon American expansionism, be it into Mexico or across the Pacific, others saw the term as a call to example.
Without an agreed upon interpretation, much less an elaborated political philosophy, these conflicting views of America's destiny were never resolved. This variety of possible meanings was summed up by Ernest Lee Tuveson: They are not, as we should expect, all compatible, nor do they come from any one source. O'Sullivan was an influential advocate for Jacksonian democracy and a complex character, described by Julian Hawthorne as "always full of grand and world-embracing schemes". Six years later, in , O'Sullivan wrote another essay titled Annexation in the Democratic Review ,  in which he first used the phrase manifest destiny.
O'Sullivan's first usage of the phrase "manifest destiny" attracted little attention. O'Sullivan's second use of the phrase became extremely influential. O'Sullivan argued that the United States had the right to claim "the whole of Oregon":. And that claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us. That is, O'Sullivan believed that Providence had given the United States a mission to spread republican democracy "the great experiment of liberty".
Because Britain would not spread democracy, thought O'Sullivan, British claims to the territory should be overruled. O'Sullivan believed that manifest destiny was a moral ideal a "higher law" that superseded other considerations. O'Sullivan's original conception of manifest destiny was not a call for territorial expansion by force. He believed that the expansion of the United States would happen without the direction of the U.
After Americans immigrated to new regions, they would set up new democratic governments, and then seek admission to the United States, as Texas had done. In , O'Sullivan predicted that California would follow this pattern next, and that Canada would eventually request annexation as well. He disapproved of the Mexican—American War in , although he came to believe that the outcome would be beneficial to both countries.
Ironically, O'Sullivan's term became popular only after it was criticized by Whig opponents of the Polk administration. Whigs denounced manifest destiny, arguing, "that the designers and supporters of schemes of conquest, to be carried on by this government, are engaged in treason to our Constitution and Declaration of Rights, giving aid and comfort to the enemies of republicanism, in that they are advocating and preaching the doctrine of the right of conquest". Winthrop was the first in a long line of critics who suggested that advocates of manifest destiny were citing "Divine Providence" for justification of actions that were motivated by chauvinism and self-interest.
Despite this criticism, expansionists embraced the phrase, which caught on so quickly that its origin was soon forgotten. Weeks has noted that three key themes were usually touched upon by advocates of manifest destiny:. The origin of the first theme, later known as American Exceptionalism , was often traced to America's Puritan heritage, particularly John Winthrop 's famous " City upon a Hill " sermon of , in which he called for the establishment of a virtuous community that would be a shining example to the Old World. We have it in our power to begin the world over again. A situation, similar to the present, hath not happened since the days of Noah until now.
The birthday of a new world is at hand Many Americans agreed with Paine, and came to believe that the United States' virtue was a result of its special experiment in freedom and democracy. Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to James Monroe , wrote, "it is impossible not to look forward to distant times when our rapid multiplication will expand itself beyond those limits, and cover the whole northern, if not the southern continent. The second theme's origination is less precise. A popular expression of America's mission was elaborated by President Abraham Lincoln's description in his December 1, , message to Congress.
He described the United States as "the last, best hope of Earth". The "mission" of the United States was further elaborated during Lincoln's Gettysburg Address , in which he interpreted the Civil War as a struggle to determine if any nation with democratic ideals could survive; this has been called by historian Robert Johannsen "the most enduring statement of America's Manifest Destiny and mission". The third theme can be viewed as a natural outgrowth of the belief that God had a direct influence in the foundation and further actions of the United States.
Clinton Rossiter , a scholar, described this view as summing "that God, at the proper stage in the march of history, called forth certain hardy souls from the old and privilege-ridden nations Americans presupposed that they were not only divinely elected to maintain the North American continent, but also to "spread abroad the fundamental principles stated in the Bill of Rights".
Faragher's analysis of the political polarization between the Democratic Party and the Whig Party is that:. Most Democrats were wholehearted supporters of expansion, whereas many Whigs especially in the North were opposed. Whigs welcomed most of the changes wrought by industrialization but advocated strong government policies that would guide growth and development within the country's existing boundaries; they feared correctly that expansion raised a contentious issue, the extension of slavery to the territories.
On the other hand, many Democrats feared industrialization the Whigs welcomed For many Democrats, the answer to the nation's social ills was to continue to follow Thomas Jefferson's vision of establishing agriculture in the new territories in order to counterbalance industrialization. Another possible influence is racial predominance, namely the idea that the American Anglo-Saxon race was "separate, innately superior" and "destined to bring good government, commercial prosperity and Christianity to the American continents and the world".
This view also held that "inferior races were doomed to subordinate status or extinction. With the Louisiana Purchase in , which doubled the size of the United States, Thomas Jefferson set the stage for the continental expansion of the United States. Many began to see this as the beginning of a new providential mission: If the United States was successful as a " shining city upon a hill ", people in other countries would seek to establish their own democratic republics. However, not all Americans or their political leaders believed that the United States was a divinely favored nation, or thought that it ought to expand.
For example, many Whigs opposed territorial expansion based on the Democratic claim that the United States was destined to serve as a virtuous example to the rest of the world, and also had a divine obligation to spread its superordinate political system and a way of life throughout North American continent. Many in the Whig party "were fearful of spreading out too widely", and they "adhered to the concentration of national authority in a limited area".
As more territory was added to the United States in the following decades, "extending the area of freedom" in the minds of southerners also meant extending the institution of slavery. That is why slavery became one of the central issues in the continental expansion of the United States before the Civil War.
Before and during the Civil War both sides claimed that America's destiny were rightfully their own. Lincoln opposed anti-immigrant nativism , and the imperialism of manifest destiny as both unjust and unreasonable. Lincoln's " Eulogy to Henry Clay ", June 6, , provides the most cogent expression of his reflective patriotism. The phrase "manifest destiny" is most often associated with the territorial expansion of the United States from to This era, from the end of the War of to the beginning of the American Civil War , has been called the "age of manifest destiny".
One of the causes of the War of may have been an American desire to annex or threaten to annex British Canada in order to stop the Indian raids into the Midwest, expel Britain from North America, and gain additional land. The American failure to occupy any significant part of Canada prevented them from annexing it for the second reason, which was largely ended by the Era of Good Feelings , which ensued after the war between Britain and the United States.
They rejected the British plan to set up an Indian state in U. They explained the American policy toward acquisition of Indian lands:. The United States, while intending never to acquire lands from the Indians otherwise than peaceably, and with their free consent, are fully determined, in that manner, progressively, and in proportion as their growing population may require, to reclaim from the state of nature, and to bring into cultivation every portion of the territory contained within their acknowledged boundaries.
In thus providing for the support of millions of civilized beings, they will not violate any dictate of justice or of humanity; for they will not only give to the few thousand savages scattered over that territory an ample equivalent for any right they may surrender, but will always leave them the possession of lands more than they can cultivate, and more than adequate to their subsistence, comfort, and enjoyment, by cultivation.
If this be a spirit of aggrandizement, the undersigned are prepared to admit, in that sense, its existence; but they must deny that it affords the slightest proof of an intention not to respect the boundaries between them and European nations, or of a desire to encroach upon the territories of Great Britain. They will not suppose that that Government will avow, as the basis of their policy towards the United States a system of arresting their natural growth within their own territories, for the sake of preserving a perpetual desert for savages.
A shocked Henry Goulburn , one of the British negotiators at Ghent, remarked, after coming to understand the American position on taking the Indians' land:. Till I came here, I had no idea of the fixed determination which there is in the heart of every American to extirpate the Indians and appropriate their territory.
The 19th-century belief that the United States would eventually encompass all of North America is known as "continentalism,"   a form of tellurocracy. An early proponent of this idea, John Quincy Adams , became a leading figure in U. In , Adams wrote to his father:. The whole continent of North America appears to be destined by Divine Providence to be peopled by one nation , speaking one language, professing one general system of religious and political principles, and accustomed to one general tenor of social usages and customs.
In the 19th century, manifest destiny was a widely held belief in the United States that its settlers were destined to expand across North America. There are three. Manifest Destiny, a phrase coined in , expressed the philosophy that drove 19th-century U.S. territorial expansion. Manifest Destiny held that the United States was destined—by God, its advocates believed—to expand its dominion and spread democracy and capitalism across.
For the common happiness of them all, for their peace and prosperity, I believe it is indispensable that they should be associated in one federal Union. Adams did much to further this idea. He orchestrated the Treaty of , which established the Canada—US border as far west as the Rocky Mountains, and provided for the joint occupation of the region known in American history as the Oregon Country and in British and Canadian history as the New Caledonia and Columbia Districts.
And he formulated the Monroe Doctrine of , which warned Europe that the Western Hemisphere was no longer open for European colonization. The Monroe Doctrine and "manifest destiny" formed a closely related nexus of principles: Concerns in the United States that European powers especially Great Britain were seeking to acquire colonies or greater influence in North America led to calls for expansion in order to prevent this.
The House of Burgesses 3. Witchcraft in Salem 4.
Only the Federal Government could purchase Indian lands and this was done through treaties with tribal leaders. In the 19th century US, Manifest Destiny was a belief that was widely held that the destiny of American settlers was to expand and move across the continent to spread their traditions and their institutions, while at the same time enlightening more primitive nations. Naval regulations permitted the use of coal only under extreme conditions. Its ironclad monitors, designed only for coastal and riverine operations, followed—some sold for scrap but most laid up to be reactivated if war threatened. We talk of accomplishing our destiny. Yet unabashed Democrats took up Manifest Destiny as a slogan. Though they originated in Mexico, American cowboys created a style and reputation all their own.
The Ideas of Benjamin Franklin 5. Life in the Plantation South 6. A New African-American Culture 7. The Treaty of Paris and Its Impact 9. The Intolerable Acts The Declaration of Independence Yorktown and the Treaty of Paris When Does the Revolution End? Revolutionary Changes and Limitations: The Age of Atlantic Revolutions The Economic Crisis of the s Constitution Through Compromise The Antifederalists' Victory in Defeat Native American Resilience and Violence in the West The Life and Times of John Adams A New National Capital: Another View of Virginia in Claiming Victory from Defeat Early National Arts and Cultural Independence The Expansion of the Vote: Jacksonian Democracy and Modern America Irish and German Immigration Transcendentalism, An American Philosophy The Southern Argument for Slavery Gold in California The Compromise of Preston Brooks and Charles Sumner